The International Wardrobe of Emperor Rudolf II : Visual and Textual Representations of an Early Modern Emperor’s Clothes (1552–1612)
The International Wardrobe of Emperor Rudolf II : Visual and Textual Representations of an Early Modern Emperor’s Clothes (1552–1612) - Rudolf II (1552–1612) was the King of Bohemia and Hungary and for more than thirty years also the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Brought up in Spain, living first in Vienna and then in Prague, he is the finest example of a cosmopolitan monarch of the Renaissance period. No wonder the investigation of his wardrobe and his clothing customs, which connects the fashion styles of Western and Eastern Europe, is very interesting. The creating of clothing style and sense for fashion of Emperor Rudolf II was affected by several events, already at an early age. The most significant was his stay at the Spanish Royal Court between 1562 and 1571. After his return, Rudolf showed great interest in clothing changes at the Spanish Court and through his Ambassador in Madrid, Hans Khevenhüller Count Frankenburg (1538–1606), asked to be sent not just the detailed information and descriptions of clothes and accessories worn by his uncle Philip II, but also real samples. There were also some pieces of clothes made according to Hungarian style among the Spanish costumes in Rudolf’s wardrobe. The personal taste of Rudolf II in clothing, which reflected his political sympathies and Catholic religion, changed the taste of nobility at Rudolf´s Prague Court. The middlemen of the governors’ fashion were the imperial craftsmen.
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- 1 Karl Vocelka, Die politische Propaganda Kaiser Rudolfs II. (1576–1612), Wien, Verlag der Österreic (...)
- 2 Pablo Jiménez Díaz, El coleccionismo manierista de los Austria : entre Felipe II y Rodolfo II, Mad (...)
1King of Bohemia and Hungary, Archduke of Austria and, for more than thirty years, also Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Emperor Rudolf II (1552–1612) was among the most important governors of early modern Europe. Brought up in Spain, and residing in Vienna, between 1576 and 1583, and Prague (the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia) from 1583 until 1612, he was also one of the most cosmopolitan rulers of the Renaissance period. Existing historical research has focused more on his patronage of the arts than on his government of the Holy Roman Empire, with historians and art historians examining his interest in collecting and art, and also his fascination with alchemy and occultism. Key studies in this area have been completed by Karel Vocelka, R. J. W. Evans, Josef Janáček and, from the perspective of art history, by Beket Bukovinská, Eliška Fučíková, Jarmila Krčálová and many others1. This essay extends this tradition of focusing principally on Emperor Rudolf’s personal and artistic history, rather than his political legacy. Examining his wardrobe and his sartorial displays, it demonstrates how Emperor Rudolf’s clothing connected the fashions of the Western and Eastern worlds, drawing strategically on the courtly styles favoured by other European countries. It also explores the role played by court tailors and craftsmen in disseminating the style of the Emperor’s clothes amongst the Habsburg aristocracy. The first section focuses specifically on the influence of the Spanish court on Rudolf II’s sartorial choices. The second section examines the role played by court-appointed tailors, and the final section offers some broad reflections on the international nature of the fashions favoured by the Habsburg aristocracy2.
- 3 E. Mayer-Löwenschwert, Der Aufenthalt der Erzherzoge Rudolf und Ernst in Spanien, 1564–1571, Wien, (...)
- 4 Inge Auerbach, ‘Maximilian II. und Rudolf II. als böhmische Könige, die böhmische Stände und das P (...)
- 5 Felipe II. (1527-1598) : Europa y monarquía católica, ed. by J. Martinez Millán, Madrid, Parteluz, (...)
- 6 Fernando Bouza Álvarez, ‘La majestad de Felipe II. Construcción del mito real’, in La corte de Fel (...)
2Emperor Rudolf II’s fashion sense was arguably influenced by several events, which he encountered from an early age. Particularly significant was his formative stay at the Spanish Royal court from 1562 to 15713. He was sent to Spain by his mother (Maria of Spain, wife of the Emperor Maximilian II and sister of Philip II, King of Spain) who hoped that the Catholic court environment presided over by her brother would inspire and educate the young Rudolf as a future emperor. Maria herself came from a strictly Catholic background whereas his father, Maximilan II, had become interested in Protestantism, the religion favoured by seventy-five percent of his country’s aristocracy4. The stay in Spain left a deep impression on Rudolf. His uncle’s court was one of the grandest in Europe, and Rudolf became intimately familiar with the sheer size, elegance, wealth and ostentation of the Spanish royal palaces in Madrid, Escorial and Aranjuaz5. He was fascinated by King Philip II’s formal behaviour and appearance, as well as by the respect and fear he inspired in his public. Enchanted and impressed by his uncle’s greatness, Rudolf came to mimic this grandeur in his own behaviour and appearance6.
- 7 Diario de Hans Khevenhüller, embajador imperial en la Corte de Felipe II, ed. by F. Labrador Arroy (...)
3In August 1571, after almost eight years at the Spanish court, the young Prince Rudolf returned with his brother Ernest to Vienna. Rudolf, however, retained his interest in the fashions displayed at the Spanish court, and insisted that his Ambassador in Madrid, Hans Khevenhüller Count Frankenburg (1538–1606) not only sent him detailed descriptions of clothes and accessories being worn by his uncle Philip II, but also samples. The personal correspondence of the Emperor with his Ambassador provides exceptional insight into Rudolf’s interest in fashion, his influences, aspirations and his desire to remain up to date with the most stylish and showy court in Europe. The letters that passed between Rudolf II and Khevenhüller are preserved today in the Court Archive in Vienna (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Wien), in the Diplomatic Correspondence Section. Significantly, each letter is strictly subdivided, with the text of official news written in German and more personal and private matters written in Spanish. The Ambassador used Spanish to detail the clothing and fashions on show at the Madrid court7.
- 8 R. J. W. Evans, op. cit., p. 162–163.
- 9 P. Jiménez Díaz, op. cit., p. 193 ; Fernando Checa Cremades and José Miguel Morán Turina, El colec (...)
- 10 J. Morávek, ‘Nově objevený inventář rudolfinských sbírek na Pražském hradě’, Památky archaeologick (...)
4At the time, there was a general belief that every material good emanating from Spain was an exemplar of luxury and quality8. The Ambassador sent to Prague complex clothes, buttons made of gold and diamonds, ribbons, silk textiles and hats. Khevenhüller also regularly informed the Emperor about the clothes, hats or buttons the Spanish king was wearing at the time and endeavoured to acquire the identical, or very similar, accessories for Rudolf. These objects were sent to middle Europe through private servants, together with additional diamonds, pieces of art and exotic objects from America9. Extraordinary and exotic artefacts, like parts of Indian clothing bought by Khevenhüller or Turkish clothes obtained during military conflicts against the Turks, became part of the Emperor’s Kunstkamera (cabinet of curiosities). As rarities they were never worn but were displayed only as a part of mirabilia10.
- 11 Alonso Sánchez Coello y el retrato en la Corte de Felipe II, ed. by S. Saavedra, Madrid, Ministeri (...)
- 12 Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, image database : http://www.bildarchivaustria.at. Comp (...)
5Between 1573 and 1612, when Rudolf II resided in Prague, Spanish fashions dominated the wardrobe of the Habsburg aristocracy. The clothing of this prince appears in the portraits painted by the most important painters of his time, such as Alonso Sánchez Coello, Bartholomeus Spranger, Joseph Heintz and Hans von Aachen11. His fine clothing is also depicted in many other visual representations of the Emperor, including woodcut portraits, scenes of court life, pamphlets and allegories, statues, glasses and medals. The National Library of Austria contains over 120 such pieces and this iconographical material serves as the basis of the analysis which follows12.
6As a boy, Rudolf was often depicted sporting a Spanish style of dress. A double portrait of Rudolf and his brother Ernest (painted by Alonso Sánchez Coello in 1567 during their stay in Spain), for example, presents the fifteen-year-old prince dressed in Spanish clothes. Rudolf is shown wearing wams (doublet) and bell-shaped trousers of light colour with distinct codpiece. His face is emphasised by a small ruff stiffened around his neck, while a sword, dagger and gloves represent his high social status. A painting of Rudolf from around 1580 similarly shows him wearing wams, a high stiffened collar finished with ruff and a beret decorated with feathers. Other paintings of Rudolf by members of the Prague Rudolfine circle, such as Josef Heinz’s portrait of 1594, Jeremias Günther’s of 1606 or Hans von Aachen’s of circa 1606-08 (fig. 1) all depict Rudolf II dressed according to Spanish fashion and adorned with the accessories that Ambassador Khevenhüller had sent to Prague.
Fig. 1 - Hans von Aachen, Emperor Rudolph II, c. 1606–08, oil on canvas : 60 × 48 cm. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Inv. no. GG 6438.
- 13 Tři francouzští kavalíři v rudolfínské Praze, ed. by E. Fučíková, Praha, Panorama, 1989, p. 51 ; ‘ (...)
- 14 R. J. W. Evans, op. cit., p. 162–63.
7Typically, once Emperor, Rudolf was shown wearing black velvet wams, an elegant richly embroidered ruff, golden buttons, feathers and gold decorations on his hat. The Order of the Golden Fleece, the only symbol of power shown, hangs from a massive chain dominating Rudolf’s attire and notably worn in a way that evoked the manner in which the Spanish king wore the Order. Rudolf’s fascination with Spanish costume and Spanish court ceremony was clearly conveyed in such images. Although there are no known inventories of Rudolf’s wardrobe, information about the wardrobe of the Emperor can be gleaned from correspondence with the Ambassadors, orders for clothes placed with tailors and court-appointed craftsmen and also in iconographical sources, travel diaries and aristocratic and political correspondence. For example, Pierre Bergeron, the traveller from France in 1600 wrote about Rudolf II’s clothing and style : ‘[…] and there we saw this Emperor of medium height, so well postured for his age of forty-nine. He was red in face and had chestnut brown intractable beard and hair. He was dressed in grey satin, with the Order of the Golden Fleece on his neck and wore a hat made of black velvet, decorated with a grey feather’13. When he visited Prague in 1609, Daniel Eremit (a member of the Tuscany legation) described Emperor Rudolf as a man, who was evidently losing life energy and who seemed emotionally attached to the traditions and clothing from happier, earlier times14.
- 15 Szépség dicsérete : 16-17. századi magvarfôúri öltözködés és culturales [The Praise of Beauty : Co (...)
8Amongst the predominately Spanish costumes in Rudolf’s wardrobe, there were also some pieces of clothes made according to Hungarian style (Rudolf II was also King of Hungary), particularly Hungarian long jackets called dolomen with specific double fastening and Hungarian leather hats with feather decoration. Indeed, Rudolf had employed a Hungarian tailor to create these garments, which could be regarded as an effort to convey nationalistic pride. The popularity of these clothes grew at time of direct military conflicts with the Turks and the brave defence of Hungarian territory. Subsequent diplomatic and business negotiations with the enemy, however, led to an adoption of some fashionable accessories and parts of developed fashion culture of the enemies15.
- 16 Archive Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv Wien, Reichshofrat, Gratialia et Feudalia, Gewerbe- und Fabri (...)
- 17 Jaroslava Hausenblasová, Der Hof Kaiser Rudolfs II : eine Edition der Hofstaatsverzeichnisse 1576– (...)
9Court bills and lists of servants reveal the names of the imperial tailors, their status and specialisation. These artisans played an important role as mediators and transmitters of new fashions between the royal court and the landed aristocracy. In 1581 there were about seventeen tailors working to clothe the court16. Only a few had the privilege of making clothes for the Emperor himself, the rest dressed the servants and other members of the court. At the same time, two court furriers and nine shoemakers were also employed. Notably, the head tailor (Leibschnieder) between 1576 and 1580, Juan Biscaino (Johann Biscano), was of Spanish origin. He was replaced by Niclaus Leinart in 1584. Anthoni Khupffer (Kupffer) held the same position from 1589 until 1603, and Johann Baptista Nostrani filled the role from 1610 until 1612. The specialized Hosenschneider (trouser-makers) were Bartholome Gally (from 1576 until 1580), Bernhart Mora (appointed in 1584) and Jacob Basy (from 1610 until 1612). Stephan Wagner enjoyed long-term employment as a specialist in Hungarian style tailoring (employed at court from 1601 until 1611). Those involved in creating the Emperor’s wardrobe also included a hat-maker and a federschmucker (feathered headdress-maker), a role which was filled by Ferrante Castell from 1576 until 1612, and a court embroider (listed as one Johann Ambrosy Carcano from 1576 until 1580, and Aleander Fruchter in 1601). Court furriers included Lorenz Lindtner (from 1580 to 1589), Georg Hünel (in 1601) and one Balthasar Kholber (between 1611 and 1612)17.
- 18 Rudolf II and Prague : The Court and the City, ed. by E. Fučíková, London/New York, Thames & Hudso (...)
- 19 R. J. W. Evans, op. cit., pp. 41–63 ; J. Janáček, op. cit., p. 228 ; Martin Dinges, ‘Der feine Unt (...)
10Rudolf II’s personal taste in clothing, reflected his political sympathies and Catholic religion, and also changed the taste of nobility at his Prague court18 .The Emperor was accepted by the aristocracy as the highest living symbol of secular power and arbiter of the social code. His public behaviour and representation was a form of propaganda which greatly affected public opinion. His clothing, gestures and behaviour were all closely observed, evaluated, and commented upon and were carefully impersonated by the aristocracy. Conforming to the habits of the Emperor’s court, and ensuring that a shared social status and aristocratic social identity was projected, proved more important than the divergent religious beliefs of the aristocracy. Significantly, this ensured that in the Czech Kingdom there was almost no difference between the way Catholics and Protestants dressed and thus clothing masked religious differences19.
- 20 Milena Hajná, ‘Oděvní řemesla na dvoře posledních Rožmberků’, Výběr : časopis pro historii a vlast (...)
11The middlemen who helped disseminate the governor’s fashionable styles to the aristocracy were the imperial craftsmen. The aristocracy were especially interested in tailors and other craftsmen whose name carried the mark ‘imperial’, ‘imperial and royal’ or ‘arch-princely’, as these labels evoked high quality craftsmanship and also served as a symbolic link with the royal family. These clothing specialists usually resided in large metropolises like Prague and Vienna, where they had their workshops (later salons) situated at Hradcany in Prague or in streets such as Auf den Graben, Maria Hilfer and Körtnerstrasse in Vienna. Their work was also very expensive in contrast with the regular cost of tailoring20.
12There are several examples of the nobility patronising the Emperor’s tailors, demonstrating the tailors’ significance in propagating new fashions outside the court and among the elite. The clothes for the Highest Chancellor of the Bohemian Kingdom, Adam II of Hradec and his family, for instance, were made by two of the Emperor’s tailors between 1574 and 1581. Nicolas Laneret, a court craftsman who came from Burgundy, also worked for the Chancellor. Moreover, it was not unusual for the Emperor’s tailors to leave the capital city and visit country residences of the nobility, often to make clothes for specific occasions (in particular, weddings). In 1579, Anna of Hradec sent a special coach for the Emperor’s tailor Jakub Bescherer to bring him to the castle of Jihdřichův Hradec and make a special wedding dress and other items for her daughter Anna. The Czech Vice-King Vilem of Rožmberk similarly employed the Emperor’s tailor from Prague in 1591. The services of the Emperor’s tailors were also used by the Protestant nobility (including the famous politician Karel Starší ze Žerotína, Karel Bruntálský z Vrbna and Jan Jiří ze Švamberka).
- 21 Třeboň, SOA, Cizí rody, family Rožmberk, sign. 11 ; Třeboň, SOA, branch office Český Krumlov, fam (...)
- 22 Eva Bukolská and Pavel Štěpánek, Španělské podobizny ve středočeské galerii, Praha, Odeon, 1980 ; (...)
- 23 Jaroslav Pánek, ‘Italové, Nizozemci a Němci v rudolfínské Praze – některé formy a problémy soužití (...)
- 24 Šimon Lomnický z Budče, Pejcha života, aneb pobožná knížka proti všelijaké nádhernosti a pejše…, P (...)
- 25 Fynes Moryson and John Taylor, Cesta do Čech, ed. by A. Bejblík, Praha, Mladá fronta, 1977, p. 78.
13Two hundred and forty-three inventories from between 1475 and 1700 reveal diverse styles in the wardrobes of the middle Europe aristocracy. The growing popularity of Spanish costume in the middle of sixteenth century is particularly noticeable, where it blended with other (different) styles more characteristic of the middle European areas before it later declined and was eliminated21. However, Spanish fashions were not able to dominate Europe completely, even during the reign of Rudolf II22. Surviving inventories of the aristocracy often list pieces marked as made in an Italian, German or Hungarian way23. This diversity perhaps reflected the fact that Prague was, as the home of the Holy Roman Emperor, a multi-cultural metropolis and capital. The endless variety of clothing cuts, shapes and decorative details cohered with the geographical position of the country in the middle of Europe, and the regular contact the local people had with foreigners during the reign of Rudolf II. The exceptional diversity of clothing styles in Czech countries is also evident in contemporary conduct books and travel writing, in which authors suggested that there was a connection between the adoption of foreign fashions and international politics and international relations. Šimon Lomnický from Budeč wrote, for example, that the Czech nobleman ‘should spend all his money, if he wants to look good. When he sees a foreigner like Flemish, Spanish or German in a new costume, he wants to have exactly the same’24. Even foreign observers, such as the English traveller Fynes Moryson, shared the same opinion on fashion styles in Czech countries in 1589. Moryson noted that ‘the Czechs dress in a similar way like the Germans. The ambassadors from the whole world arrive in Prague, the Italian businessmen stay here and the Czechs are spoiled by foreign fashion more than the Germans’25. During the reign of Rudolf II, Prague was a meeting place of different cultures, a fact reflected in and mediated through aristocratic dress.
- 26 Milena Bravermanová and Andrea Černá, ‘Pohřební textilie z hrobu Rudolfa II. v královské hrobce v (...)
14Details of the death of Rudolf II in January of 1612 were widely recorded in written accounts and contemporary images and have been extensively studied. His funeral clothes are the only original textiles of Rudolf to have been preserved. They form part of the collections of the Prague Castle. Textile conservators, Milena Bravermanova and Michal Lutovký, specialists in funeral textiles, have resorted and analysed the Emperor’s clothes, which were discovered in his coffin in excellent condition. These are now part of the art collection of the Castle of Prague and are displayed to the public during special exhibitions. Rudolf II’s funeral wardrobe consisted of a Damascus coat of Hungarian style, in a clove colour with plant motives, having a double fastening with decorative ribbons. Underneath, the Emperor was wearing loose below-the-knee silk trousers and a sateen jacket with a single fastening. There was a hat with a thin brim, from which all the expensive jewellery was taken off before the funeral. According to iconographical sources the Emperor also wore a characteristic white ruff around his neck. On his feet, the Emperor wore silk stockings and velvet slippers. His hands were decorated by three beautiful rings, one of which carried zodiac symbols in enamel26.
1 Karl Vocelka, Die politische Propaganda Kaiser Rudolfs II. (1576–1612), Wien, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaftler, 1981 ; Karl Vocelka, Rudolf II. und seine Zeit, Wien/Köln/Graz, Böhlau, 1985 ; R. J. W. Evans, Rudolf II and his World : A Study in Intellectual History, 1576–1612, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1973 ; Josef Janáček, Rudolf II. a jeho doba, Praha/Litomyšl, Paseka, 1997 ; Eliška Fučíková, Beket Bukovinská and Ivan Muchka, Rodolphe II : monarque et mécène, Paris, Cercle d’Art, 1990 ; Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II., 1607–1611, ed. by R. Bauer and H. Haupt, Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, no. 72, 1976 ; Dějiny českého výtvarného umění : Od počátků renesance do závěru baroka, II/1, Praha, Academia, 4537589.
2 Pablo Jiménez Díaz, El coleccionismo manierista de los Austria : entre Felipe II y Rodolfo II, Madrid, Sociedad Estatal para la Conmemoración de los Centenarios de Felipe II y Carlos V, 2001.
3 E. Mayer-Löwenschwert, Der Aufenthalt der Erzherzoge Rudolf und Ernst in Spanien, 1564–1571, Wien, Tempsky, 1927.
4 Inge Auerbach, ‘Maximilian II. und Rudolf II. als böhmische Könige, die böhmische Stände und das Problem der Reformation und Gegenreformation in Böhmen’, in Hans-Bernd Herder, Später Humanismus in der Krone Böhmen 1570-1620, Dresden, Dresden Univ. Press, 1998, p. 17-27.
5 Felipe II. (1527-1598) : Europa y monarquía católica, ed. by J. Martinez Millán, Madrid, Parteluz, 1998, I-IV ; Geoffrey Parker, Philip II, London, Open Court, 1979.
6 Fernando Bouza Álvarez, ‘La majestad de Felipe II. Construcción del mito real’, in La corte de Felipe II, ed. by J. Martínez Millán, Madrid, Alianza Ed., 1994, p. 37-72 and Imagen y propaganda : capítulos de historia cultural del reino de Felipe II, Madrid, Akal, 1998 ; Christina Hofmann, Das spanische Hofzeremoniell von 1500-1700, Frankfurt am Main/New York, Lang, 1985.
7 Diario de Hans Khevenhüller, embajador imperial en la Corte de Felipe II, ed. by F. Labrador Arroyo, Madrid, Akal, 2001.
8 R. J. W. Evans, op. cit., p. 162–163.
9 P. Jiménez Díaz, op. cit., p. 193 ; Fernando Checa Cremades and José Miguel Morán Turina, El coleccionismo en España : de cámara de maravillas a la galería de pinturas, Madrid, Cátedra, 1985 ; Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II.…, op. cit., p. 1–143. Archive Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv Wien, Spain, diplomatic correspondence, fasc. 10, ‘Letters of Rudolf II ; Transcripts of Letters of Hans Khevenhüller’.
10 J. Morávek, ‘Nově objevený inventář rudolfinských sbírek na Pražském hradě’, Památky archaeologické, Skupina historická, 38, 1932 ; Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II.…, op. cit.
11 Alonso Sánchez Coello y el retrato en la Corte de Felipe II, ed. by S. Saavedra, Madrid, Ministerio de cultura, 1990 ; Jürgen Zimmer, Joseph Heintz der Ältere als Maler, Weissenhorn, Konrad, 1971 ; Eliška Fučiková, Hans von Aachen : Bakchus a Silén, Praha, Národní galerie, 1996.
13 Tři francouzští kavalíři v rudolfínské Praze, ed. by E. Fučíková, Praha, Panorama, 1989, p. 51 ; ‘Die Relationen der Botschafter Venedigs über Deutschland und Österreich im 16. Jahrhundert’, ed. by J. Fiedler, in Fontes Rerum Austriacum, Diplomataria XXX, Wien, 1870 ; Marie Koldinská, Petr Maťa, Deník rudolfínského dvořana. Adam mladší z Valdštejna 1602-1633, Praha, Argo, 1997 ; Victor Klarwill, Fugger-Zeitung. Ungedruckte Briefe an das Haus Fugger aus den Jahren 1548-1605, Wien, Ricola, 1923.
14 R. J. W. Evans, op. cit., p. 162–63.
15 Szépség dicsérete : 16-17. századi magvarfôúri öltözködés és culturales [The Praise of Beauty : Costumes and Habits of Hungarian Aristocracy in the 16th-17th Centuries], Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, 2001.
16 Archive Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv Wien, Reichshofrat, Gratialia et Feudalia, Gewerbe- und Fabriksprivilegien, cart. 3/4, fasc. 4, 1[H], fols. 60-61.
17 Jaroslava Hausenblasová, Der Hof Kaiser Rudolfs II : eine Edition der Hofstaatsverzeichnisse 1576–1612, Praha, Artefactum, 2002, p. 362-420.
18 Rudolf II and Prague : The Court and the City, ed. by E. Fučíková, London/New York, Thames & Hudson, 1997 ; Rudolf II, Prague and the World : Papers from the International Conference, Prague, 2-4 September 1997, ed. by I. Muchka, L. Konečný and B. Bukovinská, Praha, Artefactum, 1998 ; Václav Bůžek, Věk urozených. Šlechta v českých zemích na prahu novověku, Praha/Litomyšl, Paseka, 2002.
19 R. J. W. Evans, op. cit., pp. 41–63 ; J. Janáček, op. cit., p. 228 ; Martin Dinges, ‘Der feine Unterschied. Die soziale Funktion der Kleidung in der höfischen Gesellschaft’, Zeitschrift für die historische Forschung, no. 19, 1992, p. 49-76.
20 Milena Hajná, ‘Oděvní řemesla na dvoře posledních Rožmberků’, Výběr : časopis pro historii a vlastivědu jižních Čech, no. 35, 1998, p. 163-88 and ‘Rožmbeský fraucimor : ženský živel na aristokratickém dvoře koncem předbělohorské doby’, Jihočeský sborník historický, no. 69-70, 2000-01, p. 5-29. Třeboň, Státní oblastní archive (from now on SOA), Cizí rody, family Rožmberk, sign. 23 a, fasc. II-VII ; sign. 11-I ; Velkostatek Třeboň, sign. IB 6I-I, II ; Třeboň, SOA, branch office Český Krumlov, family Schwarzenberg, sign. ÚP-217 ; sign. F.P. h./5-28.
21 Třeboň, SOA, Cizí rody, family Rožmberk, sign. 11 ; Třeboň, SOA, branch office Český Krumlov, family Eggenberg, sign. III 3h 1u, family Schwarzenberg, no. 80 ; Prague, Státní ústřední archive, Serie Stará manipulace ; sign. L 39/115, sign. L 39/116, sign. L 40/10, etc.
22 Eva Bukolská and Pavel Štěpánek, Španělské podobizny ve středočeské galerii, Praha, Odeon, 1980 ; Carmen Bernis, ‘La moda en la España de Felipe II a través del retrato de Corte’, in Alonso Sánchez Coello y el retrato en la Corte de Felipe II, ed. by S. Saavedra, Madrid, Ministerio de cultura, 1990, p. 66-111 ; Idem, El traje y los tipos sociales en El Quijote, Madrid, El Viso, 2001, p. 137-306 ; Des Kaisers Rock : Uniform und Mode am Österreichischen Kaiserhof 1800 bis 1918, ed. by G. Kugler and H. Haupt, Eisenstadt, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Allgemeine Kulturangelegenheiten, 1989, p. 11-22 ; Zikmund Winter, Dějiny kroje v zemích českých od počátku století XV až po dobu bělohorské bitvy, II, Praha, F. Šimáček, 1893, p. 456.
23 Jaroslav Pánek, ‘Italové, Nizozemci a Němci v rudolfínské Praze – některé formy a problémy soužití’, Documenta pragensia, no. 19, 2001, p. 67-74 and 362-64 ; Josef Janáček, ‘Italové v předbělohorské Praze (1526-1620)’, Pražský sborník historický, no. 16, 1983, p. 77-118.
24 Šimon Lomnický z Budče, Pejcha života, aneb pobožná knížka proti všelijaké nádhernosti a pejše…, Praha, 1615.
25 Fynes Moryson and John Taylor, Cesta do Čech, ed. by A. Bejblík, Praha, Mladá fronta, 1977, p. 78.
26 Milena Bravermanová and Andrea Černá, ‘Pohřební textilie z hrobu Rudolfa II. v královské hrobce v katedrále sv. Víta na Pražském hradě’, Archeologia historica, no. 22, 1997, p. 363-85 ; Milena Bravermanová and Michal Lutovský, Hrobky, hroby a pohřebiště českých knížat a králů, Praha, Libri, 2001.Top of page
|Fig. 1 - Hans von Aachen, Emperor Rudolph II, c. 1606–08, oil on canvas : 60 × 48 cm. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Inv. no. GG 6438.|
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